One of the many ideologies of the nineteenth century was conservatism. For conservatives, society and the state, not the individual, was paramount, in a world to be guided by tradition. The victors over Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna, forming the Quadruple Alliance of Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia. Its guiding principle was “legitimacy,” or monarchical government, to be maintained by a balance of power. A new German Confederation replaced the Holy Roman Empire. The Quadruple Alliance became the Quintuple Alliance with the admittance of France.
Acting as the Concert of Europe, the major powers intervened to uphold conservative governments. However, Britain, seeking new markets, opposed intervention when Spain s Latin American colonies declared their independence. Britain was under conservative Tory rule until 1830 despite economic protests and demands for electoral reform. The Bourbons returned to France with Louis XVIII (1814-1824) and Charles X (1824-1830). Bourbon Spain and Italy remained under conservative rule. The reform hopes of German students and professors were negated by the repressive measures of the Carlsbad Decrees. Order was maintained in multiethnic Austria, and in Russia a reform movement was crushed in 1825.
Liberalism grew out of the Enlightenment and the era of Revolutions. Freedom was the aim, both in politics and in economics; the state should have no responsibilities except in defense, policing, and public works construction. Natural rights and representative government were essential, but most liberals limited voting to male property owners. Nationalism, with its belief in a community with common traditions, language, and customs, also emerged from the French Revolution, threatening the status quo in divided Germany and Italy and the multinational Austrian Empire. Utopian socialists envisioned cooperation rather than competitive capitalism, and voluntary communities were established and government workshops suggested.
In 1830, an uprising in France led to a constitutional monarchy headed by Louis-Philippe (1830-1848), supported by the upper middle-class. Belgium split off from the Netherlands, but national uprisings in Poland and Italy failed. In Britain, the franchise was widened to include the upper middle-classes, and free trade became the norm. The great revolutionary year was 1848. France s Louis-Philippe fled into exile, and the Second Republic was established with universal manhood suffrage, but conflict developed between socialist demands and the republican political agenda. A unified Germany was the aim of the Frankfurt Assembly, but it failed. In Austria, liberal demands of Hungarians and others were put down. In Italy, there were uprisings against Austrian rule, and a republic was proclaimed in Rome, but conservatives regained control.
To attain an ordered society, civilian police forces were created, such as London s “bobbies.” Urban poverty was addressed through workhouses and technical institutes to teach productive trades. Sunday schools were established, and churches campaigned against gambling and prostitution. In prisons, the incarcerated would be reformed through work or by isolation.
Romanticism, a reaction against Enlightenment reason, favored intuition, feeling, and emotion. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote a popular novel about a youth who committed suicide for love. The brothers Grimm collected folk tales, and the Middle Ages inspired Sir Walter Scott. Mary Shelley and Edgar Allan Poe wrote about the bizarre, and Percy Bysshe Shelley and Lord George Byron were notable poets. Nature was often the subject in William Wordsworth s poetry and the paintings of Caspar David Friedrich and J.M.W. Turner. In music, Ludwig von Beethoven and Hector Berlioz were major figures. Religious Romanticism was to be found in Catholicism s medieval heritage and in Protestant revival movements.
Reading 1: Pages 624-634
The Conservative Order:
The Peace Settlement
The Ideology of Conservatism
Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
Conservative Domination: The European States
Reading 2: Pages 634-638
The Ideologies of Change:
Reading 3: Pages 638-641
Revolution and Reform (1830-1850):
Another French Revolution
Revolutionary Outbursts in Belgium, Poland, and Italy
Reform in Great Britain
Reading 4: Pages 641-649
Revolution and Reform (1830-1850):
The Revolutions of 1848
The Maturing of the United States
The Emergence of an Ordered Society:
New Police Forces
Reading 5: Pages 649-654
Culture in an Age of Reaction and Revolution:
The Characteristics of Romanticism
Romanticism in Art
Romanticism in Music
The Revival of Religion in the Age of Romanticism
Chapter 21 Introduction
Chapter 21 Summary
Chapter 21 Glossary
Chapter 21 Reading Guide
Chapter 21 Outline
Chapter 21 Old-Style M-C Test: Questions Answers
Chapter 21 Review Materials
Chapter 21 Scan