8.1 Technology Today

Technology is the application of science to address the problems of daily life. The fast pace of technological advancement means the advancements are continuous, but that not everyone has equal access. The gap created by this unequal access has been termed the digital divide. The knowledge gap refers to an effect of the digital divide: the lack of knowledge or information that keeps those who were not exposed to technology from gaining marketable skills

8.2 Media and Technology in Society

Media and technology have been interwoven from the earliest days of human communication. The printing press, the telegraph, and the Internet are all examples of their intersection. Mass media have allowed for more shared social experiences, but new media now create a seemingly endless amount of airtime for any and every voice that wants to be heard. Advertising has also changed with technology. New media allow consumers to bypass traditional advertising venues and cause companies to be more innovative and intrusive as they try to gain our attention. Chapter 8 | Media and Technology 173

8.3 Global Implications of Media and Technology

Technology drives globalization, but what that means can be hard to decipher. While some economists see technological advances leading to a more level playing field where anyone anywhere can be a global contender, the reality is that opportunity still clusters in geographically advantaged areas. Still, technological diffusion has led to the spread of more and more technology across borders into peripheral and semi-peripheral nations. However, true technological global equality is a long way off.

8.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology

There are myriad theories about how society, technology, and media will progress. Functionalism sees the contribution that technology and media provide to the stability of society, from facilitating leisure time to increasing productivity. Conflict theorists are more concerned with how technology reinforces inequalities among communities, both within and among countries. They also look at how media typically give voice to the most powerful, and how new media might offer tools to help those who are disenfranchised. Symbolic interactionists see the symbolic uses of technology as signs of everything from a sterile futuristic world to a successful professional life.

Section 8.1  Technology Today

  • technology: the application of science to solve problems in daily life
  • knowledge gap: the gap in information that builds as groups grow up without access to technology
  • e-readiness: the ability to sort through, interpret, and process digital knowledge
  • digital divide: the uneven access to technology around race, class, and geographic lines
  • net neutrality: the principle that all Internet data should be treated equally by internet service providers

Section 8.2  Media and Technology in Society

  • media: all print, digital, and electronic means of communication
  • utility patents: patents that are granted for the invention or discovery of any new and useful process, product, or machine
  • design patents: patents that are granted when someone has invented a new and original design for a manufactured product
  • plant patents: patents that recognize the discovery of new plant types that can be asexually reproduced
  • evolutionary model of technological change: a breakthrough in one form of technology that leads to a number of variations, from which a prototype emerges, followed by a period of slight adjustments to the technology, interrupted by a breakthrough
  • planned obsolescence: the act of a technology company planning for a product to be obsolete or unable from the time it s created
  • new media: all interactive forms of information exchange

Section 8.3  Global Implications of Media and Technology

  • media globalization: the worldwide integration of media through the cross-cultural exchange of ideas
  • technological globalization: the cross-cultural development and exchange of technology
  • media consolidation: a process by which fewer and fewer owners control the majority of media outlets
  • oligopoly: a situation in which a few firms dominate a marketplace
  • technological diffusion: the spread of technology across borders
  • gatekeeping: the sorting process by which thousands of possible messages are shaped into a mass media-appropriate form and reduced to a manageable amount
  • panoptic surveillance: a form of constant monitoring in which the observation posts are decentralized and the observed is never communicated with directly
  • cyberfeminism: the application to and promotion of feminism online
  • neo-Luddites: those who see technology as a symbol of the coldness of modern life
  • technophiles: those who see technology as symbolizing the potential for a brighter future

Section 8.1 Technology Today

What Is Technology?
 Technological Inequality
 Use of Technology and Social Media in Society by Individuals
 Online Privacy and Security
 Net Neutrality

Section 8.2 Media and Technology in Society

Categorizing Technology
Types of Media and Technology
 Print Newspaper
 Television and Radio
 New Media
Product Advertising
Homogenization and Fragmentation

Section 8.3 Global Implications of Media and Technology

Media Globalization
Technological Globalization

Section 8.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology

 Commercial Function
 Entertainment Function
 Social Norm Functions
 Life-Changing Functions
Conflict Perspective
 Control of Media and Technology
 Technological Social Control and Digital Surveillance
 Feminist Perspective
Symbolic Interactionism
 Social Construction of Reality
 Social Networking and Social Construction

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21.1 Collective Behavior

Collective behavior is noninstitutionalized activity in which several people voluntarily engage. There are three different forms of collective behavior: crowd, mass, and public. There are three main theories on collective behavior. The first, the emergent-norm perspective, emphasizes the importance of social norms in crowd behavior. The next, the value-added theory, is a functionalist perspective that states that several preconditions must be in place for collective behavior to occur. Finally the assembling perspective focuses on collective action rather than collective behavior, addressing the processes associated with crowd behavior and the lifecycle and various categories of gatherings.

21.2 Social Movements

Social movements are purposeful, organized groups, either with the goal of pushing toward change, giving political voice to those without it, or gathering for some other common purpose. Social movements intersect with environmental changes, technological innovations, and other external factors to create social change. There are a myriad of catalysts that create social movements, and the reasons that people join are as varied as the participants themselves. Sociologists look at both the macro- and microanalytical reasons that social movements occur, take root, and ultimately succeed or fail.

21.3 Social Change

There are numerous and varied causes of social change. Four common causes, as recognized by social scientists, are technology, social institutions, population, and the environment. All four of these areas can impact when and how society changes. And they are all interrelated: a change in one area can lead to changes throughout. Modernization is a typical result of social change. Modernization refers to the process of increased differentiation and specialization within a society, particularly around its industry and infrastructure. While this assumes that more modern societies are better, there has been significant pushback on this western-centric view that all peripheral and semi-peripheral countries should aspire to be like North America and Western Europe.

Section 21.1 Collective Behavior

  • flash mob: a large group of people who gather together in a spontaneous activity that lasts a limited amount of time
  • collective behavior: a noninstitutionalized activity in which several people voluntarily engage
  • crowd: a fairly large number of people who share close proximity
  • casual crowds: people who share close proximity without really interacting
  • conventional crowds: people who come together for a regularly scheduled event
  • expressive crowds: crowds who share opportunities to express emotions
  • acting crowds: crowds of people who are focused on a specific action or goal
  • mass: a relatively large group with a common interest, even if they may not be in close proximity
  • public: an unorganized, relatively diffuse group of people who share ideas
  • emergent norm theory: a perspective that emphasizes the importance of social norms in crowd behavior
  • value-added theory: a functionalist perspective theory that posits that several preconditions must be in place for collective behavior to occur
  • assembling perspective: a theory that credits individuals in crowds as behaving as rational thinkers and views crowds as engaging in purposeful behavior and collective action

Section 21.2 Social Movements

  • social movement: a purposeful organized group hoping to work toward a common social goal
  • NGO: nongovernmental organizations working globally for numerous humanitarian and environmental causes
  • reform movements: movements that seek to change something specific about the social structure
  • revolutionary movements: movements that seek to completely change every aspect of society
  • religious/redemptive movements: movements that work to promote inner change or spiritual growth in individuals
  • alternative movements: social movements that limit themselves to self-improvement changes in individuals
  • resistance movements: those who seek to prevent or undo change to the social structure
  • resource mobilization theory: a theory that explains social movements success in terms of their ability to acquire resources and mobilize individuals
  • social movement organization: a single social movement group
  • social movement sector: the multiple social movement industries in a society, even if they have widely varying constituents and goals
  • social movement industry: the collection of the social movement organizations that are striving toward similar goals
  • diagnostic framing: a social problem that is stated in a clear, easily understood manner
  • prognostic framing: social movements that state a clear solution and a means of implementation
  • motivational framing: a call to action
  • frame alignment process: using bridging, amplification, extension, and transformation as an ongoing and intentional means of recruiting participants to a movement
  • new social movement theory: a theory that attempts to explain the proliferation of postindustrial and postmodern movements that are difficult to understand using traditional social movement theories

Section 21.3 Social Change

  • social change: the change in a society created through social movements as well as through external factors like environmental shifts or technological innovations
  • crowdsourcing: the process of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people
  • modernization: the process that increases the amount of specialization and differentiation of structure in societies

Section 21.1 Collective Behavior

Forms of Collective Behavior
Theoretical Perspectives on Collective Behavior
 Emergent-Norm Perspective
 Value-Added Theory
 Assembling Perspective

Section 21.2 Social Movements

Levels of Social Movements
Types of Social Movements
Stages of Social Movements
Theoretical Perspectives on Social Movements
 Resource Mobilization
 Resource Mobilization and the Civil Rights Movement
 Framing/Frame Analysis
 New Social Movement Theory
 The Movement to Legalize Marijuana

Section 21.3 Social Change

Causes of Social Change
 The Darker Side of Technology: Electronic Aggression in the Information Age
 Social Institutions
 The Environment

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