By the 1980s the Soviet Union was in economic crisis. A new era began in 1985 when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power. In his attempt to reform Soviet society he relied upon perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness). Competitive elections were instituted, and non-Communist political parties were legalized. In 1990 Gorbachev was chosen as the first president of the Soviet Union. However, the Soviet Union was in disarray as nationalistic movements began in most of the republics, a consequence of the reduction of the Soviet dictatorship. When conservative elements attempted to remove Gorbachev in 1991, Boris Yeltsin, the president of the Russian Republic, led the resistance. The Soviet Union was abolished in December, and a voluntary Commonwealth of Independent States replaced the Soviet empire.Yeltsin gave backing to a market economic and a pluralistic political system, but the transition from the old to the new was fueled by corruption and organized crime and ethnic outbreaks in the Caucasus against Russian rule, notably in Muslim Chechnya. Yeltsin resigned in 1999, and a former KGB official, Vladimir Putin, rep laced him. Putin’s tenure saw economic progress, much of it the result of oil and natural gas, but at the cost of greater political centralization. The Chechnya problem remained unresolved.

Gorbachev’s policies also impacted Soviet-controlled Eastern Europe, and in Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Albania, Romania, and Czechoslovakia, Communist regimes collapsed, replaced by democratic governments. The Berlin Wall was torn down, and Germany was reunified. However, as in the former Soviet Union, the transition to free market democratic society was not easy. A few of the eastern states joined NATO and more became members of the European Union (EU). Ethnic demands shook Serb-dominated but multi-ethnic Yugoslavia, and war resulted when Croatia declared its independence. “Ethnic cleansing” occurred in Bosnia-Herzegovina against the Muslim majority. Eventually the province was divided among Serbs and Muslims and Croats, but only a bombing campaign by NATO brought autonomy to Kosovo with its ethnic Albanian majority. Yugoslavia, which had come into existence after World War I, disappeared from the map, with the remaining rump renamed Serbia.

German reunification came at considerable economic cost given the former East Germany’s bankrupt economy. In Britain the Labour Party moved to the political center and was elected in 1997, with Tony Blair as prime minister, whose tenure was tarnished by corruption and his active support of the Iraq War. Socialism failed to work in France under François Mitterrand, but economic problems continued under conservative Jacques Chirac. The existence of a large Muslim community, many immigrants from North Africa, challenged the government. Italy’s economy rebounded during the 1980s, where political corruption was endemic. By 2004, the population of European Community was 455 million. The EC became the European Union in 1994, and a common currency, the euro, was adopted by most member states. A single common market had been establishing, but nationalistic attitudes still remained, and a common foreign policy was yet to be achieved.

In the United States, the 1990s was a period of prosperity, but Bill Clinton’s presidency was tarnished by his affair with a White House intern. The events of September 11, 2001, and the resulting wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, dominated the presidency of George W. Bush. As the wars dragged the administration’s popularity plummeted, compounded by corruption and the failures associated with the Hurricane Katrina disaster. Barack Obama’s message of change swept the Democrats to victory in the 2008 election. The dramatic collapse of the American financial system posed new challenges and opportunities, and the Obama administration focused on dealing with recession and health care reform.

Although the Cold War had ended by 1990, “history” had not. There was a new era of conflict, an Age of Terrorism. The motives of terrorists could be nationalist, economic, political, and increasingly religious. The Age of Terrorism did not begin on 9/11 with al-Qaeda’s attack on New York’s World Trade Center, but that event symbolized the new era. The immediate response by the West was war against the Taliban in Afghanistan, followed in 2003 against Iraq, where Saddam Hussein was believed to have weapons of mass destruction.

Women continued to enter the workforce in greater numbers, and the women’s movement prospered. In spite of the opposition of the Catholic Church, birth control and abortion were widely available. The birth rate in many Western countries declined, necessitating immigrants and “guest workers” to staff jobs. The task of integrating non-westerners, often Muslims, into western society was daunting. Social tensions increased and violent anti-immigrant actions occurred in France and Germany and elsewhere, and the United States faced conflict over “illegal” Latin American immigrants.

Church attendance declined precipitously in the West. The exception was among fundamentalist Christians, particularly in the United States. Islamic fundamentalism found a receptive audience, some of whom turned to terrorism. The religious icon of the West in the late twentieth century was the charismatic but theologically conservative Pope John Paul II. In the visual arts, Neo-Expressionism reached its apex. Popular music was exemplified by “grunge”, hip-hop, and gangsta rap. The world became digitalized, exemplified by Microsoft and Bill Gates. Video games and cell phones transformed society. In the global economy, the multinational or the transnational corporation has become the central arbiter, whose relations are mediated by international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). But globalization could also contribute to environmental challenges such as global warming and mass immigration, with its social consequences.

  1. Explain the causes and effects of mass atrocities in the period following World War II to the present.
    1. Nationalist and separatist movements, along with ethnic conflict and ethnic cleansing, periodically disrupted the post-World War II peace.
      1. New nationalisms in central and eastern Europe resulted in war and genocide in the Balkans.
  2. Explain state-based economic developments following World War II and the responses to these developments.
    1. Postwar economic growth supported an increase in welfare benefits; however, subsequent economic stagnation led to criticism and limitation of the welfare state.
      1. The expansion of cradle-to-grave social welfare programs in the aftermath of World War II, accompanied by high taxes, became a contentious domestic political issue as the budgets of European nations came under pressure in the late 20th century.
  3. Explain the causes and effects of the end of the Cold War.
    1. Following a long period of economic stagnation, Mikhail Gorbachev’s internal reforms of perestroika and glasnost, designed to make the Soviet system more exible, failed to stave o the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of its hegemonic control over Eastern and Central European satellites.
    2. The collapse of the USSR in 1991 ended the Cold War and led to the establishment of capitalist economies throughout Eastern Europe. Germany was reunited, the Czechs and the Slovaks parted, Yugoslavia dissolved, and the European Union was enlarged through the admission of former Eastern bloc countries.
  4. Explain how innovation and advances in technology influenced cultural and intellectual developments in the period 1914 to the present.
    1. Medical theories and technologies extended life but posed social and moral questions that eluded consensus and crossed religious, political, and philosophical perspectives.
  5. Explain how the European Union affected national and European identity throughout the period following World War II to the present.
    1. EU member nations continue to balance questions of national sovereignty with the responsibilities of membership in an economic and political union.
  6. Explain the causes and effects of changes to migration within and immigration to Europe throughout the period following World War II to the present.
    1. Increased immigration into Europe altered Europe’s religious makeup, causing debate and con ict over the role of religion in social and political life.
    2. Because of the economic growth of the 1950s and 1960s, migrant workers from southern Europe, Asia, and Africa immigrated to western and central Europe; however, after the economic downturn of the 1970s, these workers and their families often became targets of anti-immigrant agitation and extreme nationalist political parties.
  7. Explain the technological and cultural causes and consequences of increasing European globalization in the period from 1914 to the present.
    1. Increased imports of U.S. technology and popular culture after World War II generated both enthusiasm and criticism.
    2. New communication and transportation technologies multiplied the connections across space and time, transforming daily life and contributing to the proliferation of ideas and to globalization.
    3. Green parties in Western and Central Europe challenged consumerism, urged sustainable development, and, by the late 20th century, cautioned against globalization.
  8. Explain how the challenges of the 20th century influenced what it means to be European.
    1. Total war and political instability in the rst half of the 20th century gave way to a polarized state order during the Cold War and eventually to e orts at transnational union.
      1. As World War II ended, a Cold War between the liberal democratic West and the communist East began, lasting nearly half a century.
    2. The stresses of economic collapse and total war engendered internal conflicts within European states and created con icting conceptions of the relationship between the individual and the state, as demonstrated in the ideological battle between and among democracy, communism, and fascism.
    3. During the 20th century, diverse intellectual and cultural movements questioned the existence of objective knowledge, the ability of reason to arrive at truth, and the role of religion in determining moral standards.
      1. The experience of war intensified a sense of anxiety that permeated many facets of thought and culture, giving way by the century’s end to a plurality of intellectual frameworks.
    4. Demographic changes, economic growth, total war, disruptions of traditional social patterns, and competing definitions of freedom and justice altered the experiences of everyday life.
      1. New voices gained prominence in political, intellectual, and social discourse.

Reading 1: Pages 927-932

Toward a New Western Order:
     The Revolutionary Era in the Soviet Union

Reading 2: Pages 932-937

Toward a New Western Order:
     Eastern Europe: The Revolutions of 1989 and the Collapse of the Communist Order
     The Reunification of Germany
     The Disintegration of Yugoslavia

Reading 3: Pages 937-942

Toward a New Western Order:
     Western Europe and the Search for Unity
     The Unification of Europe
     The United States: Move to the Center
     Contemporary Canada [optional]

Reading 4: Pages 942-945

New World Order or Age of Terrorism?:
     The End of the Cold War
     An Age of Terrorism?
     Terrorist Attack on the United States
     The West and Islam

Reading 5: Pages 945-947

New Directions and New Problems in Western Society:
     Transformation in Women’s Lives
     Guest Workers and Immigrants

Reading 6: Pages 947-953

Western Culture Today:
     Varieties of Religious Life
     Art and Music in the Age of Commerce: The 1980s and 1990s
The Digital Age:
     The Technological World
     Music and Art in the Digital Age
     Reality in the Digital Age

Reading 7: Pages 953-958

Toward a Global Civilization: New Challenges and Hopes:
     The Global Economy
     Globalization and the Environmental Crisis
     The Social Challenges of Globalization
     New Global Movements and New Hopes