World History (A)

Chapter 10: An Age of Democracy and Progress, 1815–1914

Summary

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY The transcontinental railroad helped to link the United States from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It was a triumph of 19th-century technology.

EMPIRE BUILDING During the 1800s, Great Britain gradually allowed three of its colonies—Canada, Australia, and New Zealand—greater self-rule. However, Britain maintained tight control over Ireland.

POWER AND AUTHORITY The United States expanded across the continent during the 1800s and added new states to its territory to become a great power.

Concepts from AP European History

The Industrial Revolution

  • Great Britain established its industrial dominance through the mechanization of textile production, iron and steel production, and new transportation systems.
  •   Britain’s ready supplies of coal, iron ore, and other essential raw materials promoted industrial growth.
  •   Economic institutions and human capital such as engineers, inventors, and capitalists helped Britain lead the process of industrialization, largely through private initiative.
  •   Britain’s parliamentary government promoted commercial and industrial interests, because those interests were represented in Parliament.
  • Following the British example, industrialization took root in continental Europe, sometimes with state sponsorship.
  •   France moved toward industrialization at a more gradual pace than Great Britain, with government support and with less dislocation of traditional methods of production.
  • During the Second Industrial Revolution (c. 1870–1914), more areas of Europe experienced industrial activity, and industrial processes increased in scale and complexity.
  •   Mechanization and the factory system became the predominant modes of production by 1914.
  •   New technologies and means of communication and transportation — including railroads — resulted in more fully integrated national economies, a higher level of urbanization, and a truly global economic network.