World History (A)

Chapter 9: The Industrial Revolution, 1700–1900

Summary

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY From the spinning jenny to the locomotive train, there was an explosion of inventions and technological advances. These improvements paved the way for the Industrial Revolution.

EMPIRE BUILDING The global power balance shifted after the Industrial Revolution. This shift occurred because industrialized nations dominated the rest of the world.

ECONOMICS The Industrial Revolution transformed economic systems. In part, this was because nations dramatically changed the way they produced and distributed goods.

Concepts from AP European History

The Industrial Revolution

  • Great Britain established its industrial dominance through the mechanization of textile production, iron and steel production, and new transportation systems.
  •   Britain’s ready supplies of coal, iron ore, and other essential raw materials promoted industrial growth.
  •   Economic institutions and human capital such as engineers, inventors, and capitalists helped Britain lead the process of industrialization, largely through private initiative.
  •   Britain’s parliamentary government promoted commercial and industrial interests, because those interests were represented in Parliament.
  • Following the British example, industrialization took root in continental Europe, sometimes with state sponsorship.
  •   France moved toward industrialization at a more gradual pace than Great Britain, with government support and with less dislocation of traditional methods of production.
  • During the Second Industrial Revolution (c. 1870–1914), more areas of Europe experienced industrial activity, and industrial processes increased in scale and complexity.
  •   Mechanization and the factory system became the predominant modes of production by 1914.
  •   New technologies and means of communication and transportation — including railroads — resulted in more fully integrated national economies, a higher level of urbanization, and a truly global economic network.